CHAPTER 2: REASONING STUDY GUIDE
- The first 3 paragraphs on page 64 list some ways in which we reason. Think about your day (or yesterday). Using the terms as a guide, try to write down all the specific ways you used reasoning. For example, if you worked on some math problems for an hour or decided which sandwich to buy…perhaps you predicted the surf conditions before you headed out!
The definition of reasoning is the capacity for consciously making sense of things, applying logic, for establishing and verifying facts, and changing or justifying practices, institutions, and beliefs based on new or existing information. As I thought more and more into reasoning, I came to the conclusion that reasoning is the only way that us as humans can make logical decisions that will lead us in our life’s path. Reasoning is a thought process that decides our fate and is what pretty much makes us unique from one another. Someone’s thought process and reasoning go hand in hand. After reading the paragraphs on page 64, my thoughts on reasoning expanded way beyond what I thought reasoning was. If I were too look back on the past week, I would have used reasoning an uncountable amount of times because every time anyone makes a decision, they have reasoning and logic. An example of this would be yesterday when I was deciding if I should go to the south shore or the north shore to surf. I had many variables to think about like wave size, tides, amount of time I could surf for, crowds, traffic and which board would be best for each spot. To decide the ideal side of the island to surf for the best surf that day I would use my reasoning from existing information. I decided to go to the south side instead of the north shore because the tide at the time was low allowing the wave to barrel over shallow reef along with the fact that it is closer and the crowd would be less so I would be able to get more waves in a 2 hour session. Reasoning is one of the most important thought processes in the human brain because it decides what will happen to you in the present and in the long run.
2. Curate an article or video on cognitive computing or cognition in general that appeals to you. Perhaps you want to find something that has to do with the relationship between REASONING and other WAYS OF KNOWING (emotions, sense perception, and language). Post and comment on. Try out this resource: http://www.psychologytoday.com/basics/cognition
While browsing the interweb I came across and article that discussed the relationship between Facebook and higher cognition amongst teens.
The link for the article is: http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/keep-it-in-mind/201308/smartbook-higher-cognition-linked-facebook-use-in-teens
This article discusses how although many parents find Facebook to be a waste of time and kills the brain cells of their children it is actually the opposite. Facebook has proven to increase mental process amongst teens and adults. The reason behind this is due to the fact that Facebook increases our working memory. The cognitively demanding environment that Facebook provides challenges our brains and also an active learning environment
3. Think of a GENERALIZATION you have made or heard recently (see pg. 68). Can you describe some examples of harmful generalizations?
One generalization that I have made is that all people that smoke cigarettes are bad people. I have made this generalization because as we all know that smoking cigarettes is a bad thing to do making me think that only bad people would do something as bad as smoking a cigarette. Some harmful generalizations could be about race. Many people think that just because you are Asian means that you are smart but that is definitely not true. Another harmful generalization could be that all people with tattoos are bad people but that is most certainly not true.
4. ***note: be sure you understand the term “Implication”, (located in the green box on page 70) – it’s part of the TOK essay criteria.
Implication: a logical relation between two ideas, stated in the form “A implies B” or “If A, then B”. For any valid implication, if idea A is true, then idea B cannot be false.
5. Make up your own variables (actual words) for P and Q in the DEDUCTIVE REASONING exercise on page 70. (just try this out so it makes more sense) – I tried “Swedes” and “blonde”.
P is Brown Q is dark hair
– All brown skin people have dark hair
– All brown hair is brown people
– All dark hair in on brown skin people
6. What are the 2 KEY ASSERTIONS of deductive reasoning? What is the MAJOR DISTINCTION between “Validity” and “Truth”?
The 2 key assertions of deductive reasoning and Truth and Validity. The difference between the Truth and Validity is that Truth is the statement that we reason about and that reasoning is validity.
7. Pick up one of your textbooks OR find an article on an online newspaper. Identify its premises and its conclusion. Look for key word hints, such as those located at the top of page 73. Are there any implicit premises (those not stated explicitly but implied)? (***note: premises are sometimes called “assumptions”)
Pick up one of your textbooks OR find an article on an online newspaper. Identify its premises and its conclusion. Look for key word hints, such as those located at the top of page 73. Are there any implicit premises (those not stated explicitly but implied)? (***note: premises are sometimes called “assumptions”)
· Is the major premise of the argument true? How could one find out?
I would say that the major premise of the argument is true because he used published labor data.
· Is the argument valid? How would you know?
The argument is valid because it makes sense and uses data to back it up.
. · Assuming that the minor premise is true, is the conclusion true? How do you know? (See page 74 for help)
The conclusion is true because it points out all the variables that were stated in the body paragraphs.
8. Construct your OWN deductive argument or “SYLLOGISM” using the template in the middle of page 73. (remember to go from general to particular…)
Our surf team usually wins the boys longboard board heats
I surf in the boys longboard heats
I usually win
9. Construct your OWN FALLACY, or invalid deductive argument, similar to the one on page 74-5.
Trees are green
Turtles are green
Turtles are trees
10. Be sure you understand what “COUNTER-ARGUMENTS” and “COUNTER-CLAIMS” are – as they are a huge part of the TOK assessments. (***if you ever get a chance, watch Red Eye http://www.foxnews.com/on-air/red-eye/index.html – it’s full of them). Remember that a strong argument is both VALID and SOUND (see page 76)
11. In your own words, how does INDUCTIVE reasoning differ from deductive reasoning? Can you provide an example of how you personally have used inductive reasoning recently? (see page 76)
Inductive reasoning has to do with common sense and the ways of survival that you were born with. Deductive reasoning has to do with facts to help you reason and make decisions. Deductive reasoning uses generalizations.
12. In the last paragraph of page 77, the author states “Much of our knowledge about the natural sciences is based on generalizations backed by repeated observation of phenomena”. Can you provide an example of CLASSICAL induction from your own science courses (group 4)?
In biology we learned that calories made energy. We then did a lab to prove it and Dr. P proved to us that calories is what gives us energy. So the classic induction would be that calories give us energy.
13. Try the “random percentage” experiment discussed in the Statistics area of page 78. Type in 3 different random percentages into Google – what do you get? Try to find a statistic with a percentage via Twitter.
– 80% of Publishers’ Clearing House $10 million winners did not purchase any magazine subscriptions.
– The percentage of Africa that is wilderness: 28%
– The percentage of North America that is wilderness: 38%
14. Find an INFOGRAPHIC that not only offers statistics, but “tells the story” or offers correlations (see page 79). Look for great infographics on the links on my site: http://amyburvall.wix.com/infographicmania#!best-sites/c1z7m
15. Provide an example of ANALOGICAL REASONING from your own life. How likely are you to trust your own results, on a scale of 0 to 10?
There will always be waves on the north shore in the winter time. 10
16. ***We might play the Crazy Captain’s game in class (Hypothetico-deductive reasoning)
17. Curate a TED TALK (http://www.ted.com ) that highlights the use of CREATIVE REASONING (pg. 82), post and provide a brief overview. (***you might want to check out TED MED at the top)
This article is all about how our current education system is destroying creativity.
18. Look around your bedroom OR your laptop: In what ways do you classify things? What is the method to your madness? Describe some common classifications in the AOKS (Areas of Knowledge, i.e. all your courses). Can you think of an example where technology or advances in science/ newfound “knowledge” has changed the classification system?
As I look on my computer, I can see that all of my classes are all separated and organized into different folders on my desktop so I do not have any files just floating in my documents. It helps me to find things easily and stay organized.
19. **We will do more exercises with classification in class.
20. Pages 86-7 discuss the dangers of classification, i.e. racism, stereotypes, and other prejudices. CURATE a relatively recent ARTICLE or VIDEO that highlights an instance of one of these issues.
21. What stereotypes, generalizations, or prejudices do you think you have?
I do not have too many stereotypes or prejudices but one generalization that I do have is that all local Hawaiians who grew up with the Hawaiian lifestyle and rituals have and spread much aloha.
22. TRY IT OUT: Take Harvard’s Race or Gender TEST: http://www.understandingprejudice.org/iat/ OR the Diet and Lifestyle or Race and Advertising TEST at http://www.understandingprejudice.org/drawline/
* follow-up reflection questions on pp.88-89 of your text
That test was a crazy, mind screwing test that really taught me my opinions verses facts. I was amazed at some of my results because it really put into perspective my generalizations and stereotypes.